Friday, April 29, 2016

PHOENIX MEMORABILIA: "I saw a little child--

     I saw a little child with hurt eyes trying to understand how a bomb dropped 16 years ago could have killed her mother yesterday.
     I heard a sobbing woman tell of her young daughter who, bleeding from ears, nose, and mouth as a result of radiation sickness, had cried brokenly on her last day, "I don't want to die! Mother, don't let me die!"
     I saw a friend point to a spot near the naked skeleton of the Peace Memorial Dome and heard him say flatly, "Our house was there."
     I met the minister, the housewife, the schoolboy, the grandfather, who lost all but their hopes on August 6, 1945, and then lost their hope also when the fate of Hiroshima and Nagasaki became a beginning, not of peace, but of an arms race for power.
     In my nightmares I have searched the charred and hollow fragments of the buildings left erect, seen in the sand beneath the river the scattered bones of the thousands who fled the A-bomb's fire, watched the pitiful human beings trail silently past, their skin hanging from them in burned and ghastly tatters.
     Man everywhere has become for me through Hiroshima something immensely precious. As I can imagine the horror of a bomb dropped on my own people, so I can feel the agony of those who would die or wish they had died.
     I do not wish to live in this world if it must be in a bomb shelter. I never want to start protecting myself before I have done everything humanly possible to make such protection unnecessary for anyone, anywhere.
     Believing that all people share the same love for life and thirst for righteousness, I wish to help them prevent the greatest tragedy of misunderstanding ever to face the world. I wish to prevent the war no one wants, for which there would be no cure.
     This is why I am protesting the existence of nuclear weapons on earth. This is why I want everyone to share my faith in mankind and to work together for peace.
     By sailing to Russia, as we sailed into the Bikini test zone, in protest against nuclear weapons and the arms race, this is what I am trying to tell the world.

--Jessica Reynolds, 1961

Wednesday, April 27, 2016

My mother: Barbara Leonard Reynolds

Barbara Leonard Reynolds

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Barbara Leonard Reynolds (June 12, 1915 - February 11, 1990), was an author who became a Quaker, peace activist and educator. In 1951, Barbara and her family moved to Hiroshima with her husband, Dr. Earle L. Reynolds [1], who was assigned by the American government to conduct a three-year study on the effects of radiation on children who had survived the first atomic bomb (1951–54).



[edit] Early life

She was born Barbara Dorrit Leonard in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, the only child of Dr. Sterling Andrus Leonard,[2] a Professor of English and Education at the University of Wisconsin and prolific author of books on English composition and literature [3] and Minnetta Florence Sammis,[4][5] an educator who evaluated the safety of new toys for children. Barbara's paternal grandmother, Eva Leonard, was a syndicated daily columnist in over 200 newspapers during World War II and later wrote advice to the lovelorn under the name Elizabeth Thompson.[6]
Barbara was fifteen and one month from graduating when her father, 43, a popular English teacher at the University of Wisconsin, drowned in Lake Mendota. A colleague from Cambridge University, Dr. I.A. Richards[7][8], 38, had come to Madison to meet Dr. Leonard and learn more of Leonard's original perspectives on English usage. Dr. Richards had spoken at the University of Wisconsin the night before and the two were spending the afternoon canoeing together. The canoe capsized and after two hours in the cold water, Leonard lost his grip on the canoe and sank. Dr. Richards was later rescued exhausted and in shock. Dr. Leonard's death was the top story in both The (Madison, WI) Capital Times[9] and the Chicago Daily Tribune [10]. The failure of lifeguards on shore to see the overturned canoe and save the two professors became a local scandal, resulting in an investigation. (Dr. Leonard's body was never recovered.)
In 1935, Barbara married Earle L. Reynolds [11] and they had three children, Tim (1936), Ted (1938) and Jessica (1944.
In 1954, Barbara and her family sailed around the world in a yacht which Earle had designed[12]. In 1958, the family sailed into the American nuclear testing zone in the Pacific to protest. In 1961, to the USSR to protest nuclear testing, stopped by a Soviet vessel off of Nakhodka, they were unable to persuade the captain to receive the hundreds of written appeals for disarmament they carried with them from the survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Upon their return to Hiroshima, Barbara determined to hand-carry the messages to government leaders and the United Nations. She organized a Peace Pilgrimage in 1962, accompanying two hibakusha, one a schoolgirl at the time of the bomb and another a baby boy orphaned by the bomb, around the world as they shared their personal experiences of atomic war, appealing to world leaders to ban nuclear weapons. Two years later Barbara organized the World Peace Study Mission, taking 25 survivors of both cities plus 15 interpreters to every nuclear nation, including the USSR. Dr. Tomin Harada, a physician who dedicated his life to the continuing medical needs of the hibakusha due to delayed radiation sickness, and who had named a species of rose he developed after Barbara, wrote in one of his two books about her, "Through Barbara's World Peace Study Mission the survivors of the atomic bomb were introduced to the world and the anti-nuclear movement gained strength." [13]

[edit] Later life

Barbara with adopted Vietnamese family: Dao Phuong Mai and children Ahn (Annie), Diep and Yen (Jenny) c. 1983
Barbara moved to Long Beach, California in 1978. Almost immediately she was caught up in the needs of Cambodian refugees fleeing the "killing fields" of Pol Pot.[14] She helped them get settled in what they hoped would be their temporary country, finding them housing, employment, education and giving them moral support.
During this time she was working to persuade senators to let a badly-wounded young Vietnamese woman, Mai Phuong Dao, out of Ho Chi Minh City. Dao worked in an orphanage in Saigon but when the American troops pulled out, the Viet Cong entered the city and took over the orphanage as a military barracks. Dao, fearing for the lives of the five half-American orphans, took two of them into her own home, with a baby of her own. When the family, including Dao's own child, were finally permitted to come to America, Barbara housed them in her own apartment.[15]
Indignant at having to pay taxes for war, Barbara deliberately lived below the poverty level so she wouldn't owe taxes.[16] She vowed she would never have an easier life than the survivors of the bomb had, nor than the Cambodian refugees around her from the war in South-East Asia.

[edit] Author

Coming from a family of writers, Barbara, her husband Earle, all three of their children and two of their nine grandchildren would become published authors[17]
Barbara's writing closely mirrored her family's adventures. After her first book, a murder mystery, Alias for Death, she wrote books for each of her children: Pepper, about Tim and his raccoon; Hamlet and Brownswiggle, about Ted and his hamsters; and Emily San, about an American girl living with her family in Japan. She wrote Cabin Boy and Extra Ballast about a brother and sister sailing with their family from Japan to Honolulu. After the family had sailed around the world in a yacht designed and built by her husband, Barbara switched back to adult non-fiction to co-author All in the Same Boat with him.
Earle and Barbara were at a writers' retreat when news came that the United States had dropped a uniquely devastating bomb on Hiroshima and another on Nagasaki. They remembered feeling only relief that the war was almost over. In 1951 Dr. Reynolds was sent by the Atomic Energy Commission to Hiroshima to study the effects of radiation on children exposed to the first atomic bomb. Barbara and the family went with him. They lived in Nijimura, an Army occupation base nearby. During their three years there, he designed and built a 50-foot yacht, Phoenix of Hiroshima [18]
In 1958, the family (minus their eldest son Tim) and one remaining crew member, Niichi (Nick) Mikami, (the other two had flown back to Japan from Panama) arrived back in Honolulu. Across the dock was a 35-foot yacht, the Golden Rule, in which four Quaker men had attempted to protest American nuclear testing in the Pacific. They were arrested under an injunction put into effect while they were at sea, forbidding American citizens to enter the 390,000 square mile area of the ocean where the weapons were being tested.[19]
In the end, the Reynolds family and Nick sailed the Phoenix into the test zone in their stead. They crossed the invisible line on July 2 and were stopped 65 miles inside the zone by the American Coast Guard ship Planetree. Dr. Earle Reynolds, as captain, was put under arrest. He was ordered to sail the Phoenix to Kwajalein, from which he, Barbara and Jessica were flown back to Honolulu by MATS plane for Earle's trial. Unable to find a third man to help Ted and Nick, who had stayed with the Phoenix, Barbara flew back to Kwajalein and the three sailed the 30-ton yacht against the wind back to Hawaii, a trip which took sixty days.

Barbara greets mother and daughter in Honolulu after 60-day sail from Marshall Islands.
After Reynolds' conviction and its reversal after a two-year appeal, the family were free to complete their circumnavigation, which made Mikami the first Japanese yachtsman to sail around the world.
On arriving in Hiroshima to an enthusiastic welcome from friends and strangers alike, the Reynolds family were surprised at the appreciation expressed by hibakusha (fire-exploded people) for their protest against nuclear weapons. Walking along a Hiroshima street one day, Barbara was stopped by a hesitant woman in full kimono. The woman pulled up her sleeve to show gnarled keloid scars typical of atomic bomb burns. With tears in her eyes she thanked Barbara for giving her a voice to share the cry of her heart, "No More Hiroshimas," with the world. Barbara often mentioned this in talks, saying, with tears in her own eyes, "it had never occurred to us to represent anyone but ourselves." This became a turning point for Barbara and she committed herself to speaking out against nuclear weapons and for disarmament.
Many who had openly reacted against their unpopular anti-nuke actions had told the family, "Go tell it to the Russians!" In 1961, when the USSR resumed their own nuclear testing program, they did. In October, they sailed to Nakhodka and were stopped within the 12-mile limit claimed by the USSR by a Soviet Coast Guard boat. The captain and several other officers jumped aboard the Phoenix. Although the Reynoldses were able to have a two-hour discussion about peace with him, Captain Ivanov would not accept the hundreds of letters from Hiroshima and Nagasaki citizens, begging for peace.
The family returned to Japan.
Barbara Leonard Reynolds and daughter Jessica 
in Hiroshima Peace Park, 1961.jpg
Barbara spent that cold Christmas Day in the Peace Park, at the foot of the monument to the () children killed by the A-bomb. She fasted and prayed for wisdom to know what to do with the hopes and entreaties of all those who looked to the Reynolds family for an end to war.
From that time of introspection, Barbara decided a survivor from Hiroshima ought to take the letters to leaders around the world. When asked why hibakusha, Barbara reportedly said, "Because they are the prophets of this present age." [20] A committee of Hiroshima leaders choose two survivors to represent the city, a 29-year old woman, Miyoko Matsubara, and 18-year old student, Hiromasa (Hiro) Hanabusa.
Barbara agreed to accompany them.

Peace Pilgrimage, 1962
Over five months, the three Peace Pilgrims traveled through 13 countries, including the Soviet Union, appealing for nuclear disarmament and receiving a warm and open reception from public leaders, churches, schools and the media. During their six weeks in the United States, they spoke to 187 groups and met with many leaders in Washington D.C. and at the United Nations. In Geneva the three attended the 1962 Disarmament Conference.
In 1964 Barbara organized an even more ambitious world tour, the World Peace Study Mission. Over three months, 25 survivors from both Hiroshima and Nagasaki with 15 interpreters, visited eight countries, including all the (then) nuclear nations. Teachers went to meet with teachers, doctors with doctors and at the UN they appealed to the U.S. government to return "Hiroshima--A Documentary of Atomic Bombing," to the Japanese, who had made it. (It had been impounded and classified by the U.S. military forces soon after the occupation of Japan.)
Upon their return, Earle and Barbara divorced. [21]

[edit] World Friendship Center

Barbara envisioned a place visiting foreigners could stay, where they could meet and hear the stories of survivors. Dedicated in 1965, the World Friendship Center has established lines of communication between hibakusha and the world through various peace efforts. Barbara was its first Director, Dr. Harada the first Chairman of a Board of ten non-political persons and an international board of honorary sponsors. Dr. Albert Schweitzer,[22] accepted a position as a sponsor in one of the last letters he wrote. Tens of thousands of people have stayed at WFC since its founding.
She spent the next 13 years getting to know the people who had experienced the bomb. They lived in shacks overhanging Hiroshima's seven rivers. They were self-conscious about their scars and never appeared in public during the day, ostracized by newcomers to the city who wanted to forget the past. Many had disfigurements or compromised immune systems which prevented them from getting or keeping jobs. Barbara developed "Hibakusha Handicrafts," finding people to teach them to make simple coin purses and other things which she would bring to the States to sell for them. She often visited the Hiroshima A-Bomb Hospital where the survivors were still succumbing to lethal radiation sickness years after the war had ended.
Upon the death of Hiro Hanabusa's grandmother, Barbara adopted him and put him through college in the States. An orphan and a survivor of Hiroshima, Hiro's prospects for marriage were slight. Barbara negotiated with the parents of Atsuko (), to arrange a marriage for Hiro with the woman he loved. Hiro, himself an orphan, fathered seven children.

[edit] Hiroshima Nagasaki Memorial collection

In August 1975, she found a home for the 3,000 books and documents she had gathered regarding Hiroshima, Nagasaki, nuclear weapons and peace in both Japanese and English. During an academic symposium, "Hiroshima and Nagasaki After Thirty Years" on the Wilmington (Ohio) College campus in August, 1975, the Hiroshima Nagasaki Memorial Collection was inaugurated. It is the largest collection of materials related to the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki outside of Japan.

[edit] Humanitarian Awards

For her contributions to the welfare of survivors, including the founding of the World Friendship Center, Barbara was presented with a key to the city of Hiroshima in 1969 and in 1975 was made an honorary citizen by Mayor Araki, the first woman so honored and only the second American, the first being Norman Cousins [23] for raising the funds to bring 25 "Hiroshima Maidens"[24] to the States for surgery for their severe injuries from the atomic bomb.
Barbara received one of 15 Wonder Woman awards in 1984.[25] Fifteen women, all over 40, were chosen for trying to right wrongs "people don't want to talk about," according to Koryne Horbal, Executive Director of the Wonder Woman Foundation, a non-profit organization founded in 1981. "They are role models for the next generation, they are living history." [26]

[edit] Death

In 1990 she died suddenly in Wilmington, Ohio. Memorial services were held in Wilmington, in Long Beach, in Philadelphia and in Hiroshima. Every Japanese TV network and major newspaper covered her life and passing. Dr. Tomin Harada, the doctor who performed surgery on Mai Phuong Dao, attended the service in California with his wife. He wrote afterward, "Her obituary in the Los Angeles Times was smaller than those carried in Japanese newspapers. Although the American people are known for their generosity, it seemed that they had not understood Barbara." [27] When he returned to Hiroshima, he organized a memorial service to her there.
Survivors erected a monument in Barbara's honor, featuring her statement, "I, too, am a hibakusha." It was unveiled in the Hiroshima Peace Park (Ground Zero) in 2011.

Design (by Hiromu Morishita) of proposed monument to Barbara Reynolds

[edit] Bibliography

  • Alias for Death (mystery). New York: Coward-McCann (1950)
  • Pepper. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons (1952)
  • Hamlet and Brownswiggle (1954)
  • Emily San (1955)
  • Cabin Boy and Extra Ballast (1958)
  • All in the Same Boat (with Earle Reynolds, 1962)
  • The Story of Leopons (with Hiroyuki Doi, 1967)
  • The Phoenix and the Dove. Japan (1986)
  • Cry to Your Heart's Content (unpublished)
  • Dear My Mother (unpublished)
  • Upwind (unpublished)
  • A Walk Through the Peace Park (unpublished)
  • Sailing into Test Waters in Reweaving the Web of Life: Feminism and Nonviolence (by Pam McAllister, 1982)
  • A Little Toad Shall Lead Them? (Reynolds, Barbara, with Shaver, Jessica Reynolds, 1991)

[edit] Articles regarding Barbara

[edit] English

  • Harada, Tomin, MD. Moments of Peace: Two Honorary Hiroshimans: Barbara Reynolds and Norman Cousins. Garvier Products Co., Ltd. Hiroshima, 1998. (Translated by Robert L. Ramseyer)
  • Linner, Rachelle Linner. "The Symbolic American: Barbara Reynolds," in City of Silence: Listening to Hiroshima. Maryknoll, New York: Orbis Books, 1995.
  • Mehren, "Winners of Wonder Woman Awards: Profiles in Courage." Los Angeles Times, Nov. 15, 1984.
  • Parrish, Beth. "Barbara Reynolds: Friend of the Hibakusha," in Lives That Speak: Stories of Twentieth-Century Quakers. Quaker Press of Friends General Conference, 2004
  • Sherman, Kris. "Longtime pacifist: Spotlight has dimmed, but Barbara Reynolds still working for peace in her own quiet way," Independent Press-Telegram (Long Beach, CA) Dec. 12, 1979
  • Totten, Sam and Totten, Martha Wescoat. "Barbara Reynolds," in Facing the Danger: Interviews with Twenty Anti-Nuclear Activists. Trumansburg, New York: The Crossing Press, 1984.

[edit] By family

  • Reynolds, Earle. "We Crossed the Pacific the Hard Way," Saturday Evening Post, May 7, 14 and 21, 1955.
  • Reynolds, Jessica, Jessica's Journal. New York: Henry Holt & Co., 1958. Eleven-year old's diary account of sailing from Hawaii to New Zealand in the Phoenix.
  • Reynolds, Earle, "The Forbidden Voyage," The Nation, 15 Nov. 1958.
  • Reynolds, Ted. "Voyage of Protest," Scribble, Winter, 1959.
  • Reynolds, Earle, The Forbidden Voyage. New York: David McKay Company, Inc., 1961. Non-fiction. The Reynolds family's protest voyage against American nuclear testing in the Pacific and aftermath, 1958-1960.
  • Reynolds, Jessica. To Russia with Love (Japanese translation). Tokyo: Chas. E. Tuttle Co., 1962. The Reynolds family's protest voyage against Soviet nuclear testing in the U.S.S.R.
  • Shaver, Jessica Reynolds. "After the flood, a mission to 'rescue' Dad," (Long Beach, CA) Press-Telegram, Jan. 14, 1982.
  • Shaver, Jessica Reynolds. "Healing Wounds and Playing Games," Moody Magazine, Feb. 1982.
  • Shaver, Jessica Reynolds. "Let us spare children our nuclear fears," (Long Beach, CA) Press-Telegram, Dec. 1, 1983.
  • Reynolds, Jessica Shaver (sic). "Amer-Asians: a call for compassion," Long Beach (CA) Press-Telegram, Oct. 21, 1984.
  • Shaver, Jessica Reynolds. "IRS quietly moves on a white-haired woman of peace," Long Beach (CA) Press-Telegram, Aug. 13, 1986.
  • Shaver, Jessica. "To the man who mugged my mother," The Orange County Register, Mar. 17, 1988.
  • Shaver, Jessica Reynolds. "An Education I Wouldn't Trade," Home Education Magazine, May-June, 1991.
  • Shaver, Jessica Reynolds (with Barbara Reynolds). "A Little Toad Shall Lead Them?" Quaker Life, June 1991.
  • Shaver, Jessica. "Breaking the Bitterness Barrier," Friends Journal, August 1991.
  • Shaver, Jessica Reynolds. "Hiroshima: August 6, 1990 in memory of my mother" (poem), Japan Times, May 2, 1995.
  • Shaver, Jessica. "Growing up in Hiroshima," The Orange County Register, Aug. 6, 1995.
  • Renshaw, Jessica Shaver, New Every Morning. Enumclaw, WA: Pleasant Word 2006.
  • Reynolds, Jessica. To Russia with Love (English original): Wilmington, OH: Peace Resource Center, Wilmington College, due out in 2010.

[edit] Japanese

  • Harada, Tomin, MD. Moments of Peace. Two Honorary Hiroshimans: Barbara Reynolds and Norman Cousins. Keiso-shobo Publishers, 1994.
  • Kotani, Mizuhoko. Pilgrimage to Hiroshima. Chikuma-shobo Publishers, 1995.
  • Harada, Tomin, MD. Haha-to-Kodemiru (A6): Hiroshima-ni-Ikite, Aru Geka i no Kaiso (Meditations of a Surgeon), (Publisher?),1999.
  • Yamakawa, Takeshi. Kibo-o-Katari, Kibo-o-Manabu: Korekara-no Heiwa Kyoiku (Talking Hope, Learning Hope). Kai-sho-sha Publishers, 2005.

[edit] References

  1. ^
  2. ^ 1888-1931; Ph.D. Philosophy, Columbia, 1928, taught English at the University of Michigan for 12 years
  3. ^ (1888-1931) English Composition as a Social Problem, (editor, 1917); Poems of the War and of the Peace, (New York: Harcourt, Brace & Co. 1921); Essential Principles of Teaching Reading and Literature (1922); The Atlantic Book of Modern Plays, (Boston: The Atlantic Monthly Press, 1921); Leonard and Cox?, General Language (Rand McNally & Co. 1925); Leonard and Cox, An Answer Book for General Language (New York: Rand McNally and Company, 1926); The Doctrine of Correctness in English Usage, 1700-1800, (Madison, 1929); Leonard and McFadden, Juniors Own Composition Book (New York: Rand McNally & Co., 1928); Theisen and Leonard, Real Life Stories, 4 volumes (Real Life Stories: Real Adventures; Real Life Stories: Heroic Deeds; Real Life Stories and Literary Selections; Real Life Stories: Open Spaces, Macmillan Company, 1930-35); Leonard and Moffett, Junior Literature (3 volumes, The Macmillan Company, 1930); What Irritates Linguists, (1930); Current English Usage, The Inland Press, 1932
  4. ^ The Home Educator. Editor, Minnetta Sammis Leonard; associate editor, Patty Smith Hill. (The Foundation library) © 29Sep23, A760377. R81873, 9Aug51, Field Enterprises, inc. (PWH); Best Toys for Children and Their Selection, self-published, 1925
  5. ^ Barbara's beloved Uncle John Sammis, 1846-1919, who wrote the well-known hymn "Trust and Obey," died on her fourth birthday.
  6. ^ Jessica Reynolds Shaver. "Joyful memories of a gentle, creative feminist," (Long Beach, CA) Press-Telegram, July 27, 1989.
  7. ^
  8. ^ From Grant Application for David Beard. Proposed paper: I. A. Richards: The Meaning of the New Rhetoric David Beard, Assistant Professor Department of Writing Studies, College of Liberal Arts, UM-Duluth: Chapter Two: American Influence on Richards and the New Rhetoric: A second chapter explores an influence on Richards that is ignored by other scholars: his relationship with American composition scholar Sterling Leonard. Most research effaces the impact of Americans on Richards’ work, focusing instead on the influence of British figures (Leavis, Empson, Eliot, Ogden, and Lewis). Americans are understood as having been influenced by Richards. In fact, Richards read Leonard’s monograph on usage in 18th century rhetorics shortly before delivering his lectures on The Philosophy of Rhetoric. Uncovering Leonard’s influence is an important first step in exploring the impact of American thinkers on the central figure of the New Rhetoric. This chapter was drafted in Summer 2007 under a McKnight summer research fellowship, will be presented at the November 2007 National Communication Association, and is presently being revised as an article for submission to the composition journal Rhetoric Review.
  9. ^ "Prof. S.A. Leonard is Drowned: Companion is Saved as Canoe Tips on Mendota"
  10. ^ "Boat Upsets; Educator Dies," May 16, 1931
  11. ^
  12. ^
  13. ^ Harada, Tomin. Moments of Peace, p.31.
  14. ^
  15. ^ Marshall, Catherine. Something More. NY: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1974, pp. 216-7
  16. ^ Shaver, Jessica Reynolds. "IRS quietly moves on a white-haired woman of peace," Long Beach (CA) Press-Telegram, Aug. 13, 1986
  17. ^ Besides books by Reynolds family members listed here as "relevant to Barbara's life" her son Tim wrote seven books of poetry: Ryoanji (New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc. 1964; Halflife (Cambridge: Pym-Randall Press, 1964; Catfish Goodbye (San Francisco: Anubis, 1967); Slocum (Santa Barbara: Unicorn Press, 1967); Que (Cambridge:Halty-Ferguson, 1971); The Women Poem (New York: Phoenix Book Shop, 1973); Dawn Chorus (New York: Ithaca House, 1980 and had two plays produced: The Tightwad (translation of L'Avare by Moliere) and Peace (musical: translation of "Peace" by Aristophanes). Ted wrote a novella, Can These Bones Live? and a short story, Ker-Plop, both of which were nominated for Hugo awards in 1980 and a novel, Tides of God (New York: Ace Books, 1989). Jessica (under Shaver) wrote Gianna: Aborted and Lived to Tell About It and Compelling Interests and (under Renshaw) New Every Morning. Grandson Allan Roeder wrote Danske Talemader (G.E.C. Gads Forlag, 1998)and grandaughter Margot Gayle Backus has written to date The Gothic Family Romance: Heterosexuality, Child Sacrifice and the Anglo-Irish Colonial Order (Durham: Duke University Press, 1999). All of the above, plus grandchildren Ben and Becky Shaver have had multiple articles, stories and/or poems published.
  18. ^ en.wikipedia/wiki/Phoenix_of_Hiroshima
  19. ^ Hardtack series of 35 atmospheric tests near the Marshall Islands, 1958)
  20. ^ Harada, Tomin. Moments of Peace.
  21. ^ Reynolds, Barbara, with Shaver, Jessica Reynolds. "A Little Toad Shall Lead Them?" Quaker Life, June, 1991.
  22. ^
  23. ^
  24. ^
  25. ^ "Winners of Wonder Woman Awards: Profiles in Courage," by Elizabeth Mehren, Los Angeles Times, Nov. 15, 1984.
  26. ^ "Make Way for 1984 Wonder Women and a Special 'Woman of Courage,'" Schenectady Gazette, Nov. 10, 1984
  27. ^ Harada. Tomin. Moments of Peace, p. 42

[edit] Peace Activism Centres

[edit] External links

edit] External links
Peace Monuments, Japan
World Friendship Center, (Hiroshima, Japan) was founded on August 6th, 1965 (exactly 20 years after the Atomic Bombing of Hiroshima), by Barbara Reynolds, to provide a place ...

Peace Resource Center, Wilmington College, Wilmington, OH was founded by Barbara Reynolds in August 1975 to house the largest collection of materials related to the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki outside of Japan and to teach peace skills to new generations.
In Pursuit of Peace: An Exhibit from the Earle and Akie Reynolds Collection. "It is not only the story of Earle and Akie Reynolds, but also of Barbara. . .
1954-1964 letters, newspaper clippings, brochures, postcards, from Earle & Barbara Reynolds & family including information on the Yacht Phoenix and the Hiroshima-Nagasaki World Peace Study Mission (Folder 47) (Folder 80) "The Growth and Development Program of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission: Analysis of Body Measurements and Observations Taken in 1952 on 4,200 Hiroshima Children" by Earle L. Reynolds, Ph.D., Nov. 15, 1953 (later published as NYO-4473 which can be found in the Tessmer Collection), TS.
Swarthmore College Peace Collection: Committee for Non-Violent Actions Records, 1958-1968

Earle L. Reynolds Phoenix of Hiroshima Hiroshima Nagasaki peace anti-nuclear protests Marshall Islands World Friendship Center Peace Resource Center citizen of Hiroshima Norman Cousins Peace Pilgrimage peace monuments yachts wooden boats 1915 births 1990 deaths USSR Nakhodka authors children's books Golden Rule Quakers Kwajalein Wisconsin Hawaii travel sailing Ohio Wisconsin Sterling A. Leonard syndicated columnist Trust and Obey hibakusha WonderWoman award I. A. Richards John Sammis citizen of Hiroshima

Tuesday, April 26, 2016


     Dad bought this turquoise ring during the three months we lived in Tucson, Arizona when I was six, just before he was assigned to Hiroshima. I don't remember him wearing it much on the boat; it was probably too apt to get caught on something or be lost overboard. I think he referred to it as his wedding ring.
     When he divorced Mum and married Hiroshima Women's College graduate Akie Nagano, he wore a wedding ring made of metal from an American plane which had been shot down. I didn't like that one.

Monday, April 25, 2016

REYNOLDS MEMORABILIA: Earle and the Sumo Wrestler

Here's my father the staid professor (5'10") with Taiho Koki (born May 29, 1940), the "greatest sumo wrestler of the post-war period," who won 32 tournaments between 1960 and 1971. This would have been taken about 1961, the year Taiho attained yokozuna, the highest rank in professional sumo.

Saturday, April 23, 2016

REYNOLDS MEMORABILIA: Earle as tennis champion

Dad (later Skipper) had won a tri-state tennis championship at some point. It was an established fact in our household but I have not been able to track down the three states (probably one was either Ohio, Illinois, Wisconsin, or Mississippi, states he lived in as an adult), or any references to any such tournament.

These were taken near his home in Santa Cruz, California after he settled down with his second wife Akie.

Friday, April 22, 2016


     This was Dad's bookplate. I'm pretty sure it was designed by Ed Fisher, cartoonist for The New Yorker, who with his wife Ann lived in the room off the kitchen of our house on the corner of Whiteman and Livermore in Yellow Springs, Ohio, sometime between 1943 and 1951.
    It shows his scientific studies as a physical anthropologist and his many and varied interests as reader, playwright, actor, tennis player--before he was sent to Hiroshima to study the effects of radiation on children.
     Here is my mother's parents' bookplate.. How come no one has bookplates any more? Oh, that's right, they don;t have books.

Thursday, April 21, 2016

My father, Earle Reynolds, including the human interest bits Wikipedia cut out

Dr. Earle L. Reynolds (October 18, 1910 - January 11, 1998), born into a circus family, became a trapeze artist, physical anthropologist, educator, author, boat designer, sailor, Quaker, peace activist and convicted felon. In 1951 the Atomic Energy Commission sent Dr. Reynolds to Hiroshima to study the effects of the first atomic bomb on the growth and development of exposed children. His professional discoveries concerning the dangers of radiation later moved Reynolds into a life of anti-nuclear activism. In 1958 he sailed with his wife Barbara, two of his three children and a Japanese yachtsman in a ketch he had designed himself into the American nuclear testing zone in the Pacific. In 1961 the family sailed to the USSR to protest Soviet nuclear testing. During the Vietnam War Reynolds and his second wife Akie sailed the Phoenix to Haiphong to deliver humanitarian and medical aid to victims of American bombing.

EARLY LIFE AND EDUCATION Earle Landry Reynolds, an only child, was born Earl Frederick Schoene to William and Maude Schoene as the circus of which they were a part passed through Des Moines, Iowa. Earle's father and uncle Frederick performed as The Landry Brothers, trapeze artists and tightrope walkers for the John T. Wortham Shows[1](also known as John T. Wortham Carnival[2]). Billboard[3]noted, "The Landry Brothers work a neat and classy rope acrobatic turn for six minutes, in full stage, which brought the brawny lads one legit." [4]. Before WWI made German names unpopular, according to Reynolds, the pair were billed as Schoene Brothers Aerial Artists. Depending on the season and the family's financial status, their circus acts alternated with vaudeville, possibly the Fred Karno Company (Karno Pantomime Troupe/Circus).

When Earl was eight, Maude told him his father had been killed falling off a trapeze. She married circus electrician Louis Haviland Reynolds on the condition that he leave the circus (she had broken her back falling from a trapeze) and they settled in Mississippi. Earl took his stepfather's surname, added an "e" to his first name, earned the rank of Eagle Scout and graduated from Vicksburg High School in 1927. He went on to earn his BA and MA from the University of Chicago and his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin, all in Anthropology. "It was either anthropology or gem-cutting and the anthropology teacher was more interesting," he told his daughter. He married Barbara Leonard[5]in 1936 and they had three children: Tim (1936), Ted (1938), and Jessica (1944). From 1943 to 1951 Reynolds was Associate Professor of Anthropology at Antioch College and Chairman of the Physical Growth Department at the Fels Research Institute for the Study of Human Development, also at Antioch College [6] During this time he wrote plays: Solitude, No Pace for a Lady, Americana, Bite the Dust and I Weep for You, and directed them at the Little Theatre in Yellow Springs, Ohio. His plays met with local success, and even attracted attention from Broadway producer, Jose Ferrer[7] He also won a tri-state tennis championship in (year?)

RESEARCH In 1951 Earle joined the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC), [8] established under the direction of the National Research Council's Division of Medical Sciences in March 1947. He was sent to Hiroshima to research the effects of radiation from the first atomic bomb on the growth of Japanese children. Dr. Reynolds and his family, their "Woody" station wagon and dog Cappy took the President Wilson to Tokyo and drove south to Hiroshima. They spent three years (1951-54)in Nijimura, an American (and for the first year) Australian occupation base near Kure, Japan while Earle completed the first of a series of longitudinal studies meant to be resumed after a one-year sabbatical. He wrote up his findings as a 4-inch-thick volume, "Report on a Three-Year Study, 1951-2-3, of the Growth and Development of Hiroshima Children Exposed to the Atomic Bomb, 1954." In summary he had found children exposed to radiation to be smaller than their counterparts with lowered resistance to disease and a greater susceptibility to cancer, especially leukemia. Because strontium-90 (produced by the atomic bomb) seeks the same areas of the bodies of growing children as calcium, such as the thyroid gland, children exposed to the bomb were also subject to thyroid cancer.

Despite the fact that he had never sailed in anything larger than a 18-foot boat, Earle took advantage of his free time in Hiroshima to design a 50-foot yacht, the Phoenix, [9] and supervise its building at nearby Miyajima-guchi. Having sold the Woody as a hearse and traded Cappy in for a cat, Earle, Barbara, son Ted,16, daughter Jessica, 10, three young Japanese men from Hiroshima, Niichi ("Nick") Mikami, Motosada ("Moto") Fushima and Mitsugi ("Mickey") Suemitsu, moved aboard. Earle's elder son Tim, 18, opted to enter return to the States and enter Antioch and then Tufts University. [10]

From 1954-1958 Earle was able to fulfill his lifelong dream of sailing around the world, inspired by Joshua Slocum's autobiography. [11]. During this trip he acquired the nickname "Skipper." The first leg of the voyage, from Japan to Hawaii, took 48 days (with an 18-hp kerosene engine, stove and lamps; electricity wasn't installed until Honolulu). [12] Ted, using measurements from a hand-held sextant, navigated the 30-ton yacht to Honolulu in 1954 and again, after circling the globe, in 1958. [13] [14] [15]

As they traveled to major cities, Dr. Reynolds visited public libraries to stay abreast of new scholarship on the effects of radiation. He checked for references to his own report and found no mention of it, either in ABCC publications or in any other. One doctor told him he had had difficulty finding a copy of the report and a former ABCC secretary told him in Washington in 1957, "that report of yours was put in a closet." But at that point he had no way to verify the information.

In Honolulu for the second time, what had been a pleasure cruise took a serious turn. Across the dock from the Phoenix was a 30-foot ketch, the Golden Rule. [16] [17] Its crew, four Quaker pacifists, Albert Bigelow, [18], George Willoughby, Bill Huntington and Orion Sherwood were attempting to sail to the Marshall Islands to protest the United States' testing of 35 nuclear devices there. [19] An injunction against American citizens entering the test zone was passed after the Golden Rule left port and it was brought back by the Coast Guard. Impressed by the reasoning and character of these men, Earle and Barbara joined the Society of Friends (Quakers) and considered taking over their protest in the Phoenix.

Dr. Reynolds was at that time one of the world's experts on the effects of radiation. In determining whether to deliberately enter the test zone, he considered a number of factors, such as the effects the radiation from the series of nuclear tests would have on the world environment, specifically increasing incidents of cancer, and the effects of this additional radiation on the Hiroshima and Nagasaki population, since both wind and ocean currents from the test site would carry radiation that direction. He considered unconstitutional the United States government's injunction declaring 390,000 square miles of ocean off-limits to American personnel during the series. Also, the forbidden zone blanketed any route by which the Reynolds family could conveniently sail back to Japan, as they had hoped to do as soon as possible to complete the circumnavigation. In addition, as the Marshall Islands were a Trust Territory of the U.S., Reynolds objected to the forced removal of Marshallese from their home islands for the purpose of detonating weapons which would almost certainly render their islands uninhabitable for years to come.

PROTESTS Earle, Barbara, Ted (20), Jessica (14) and Mikami cleared "for the high seas" on June 11, 1958. The family had not decided whether or not to enter the forbidden zone but Mikami, whose mother and brother had been in the bombing, never wrestled with the question. For days after the A-bomb was dropped, his mother had crawled through the radioactive rubble, searching for her brother-in-law. She never found his body. By July 1, at the edge of the invisible perimeter of the zone, everyone came to a consensus. Earle announced by radiotelephone, on the international frequency for ships at sea, "The United States yacht Phoenix is sailing today into the nuclear test zone as a protest against nuclear testing. . ."

The next morning, 65 miles inside the forbidden zone, the Phoenix was intercepted and stopped by the American Coast Guard cutter Planetree.[20] Two armed Coast Guard officers jumped aboard and put Earle (only) under arrest. Reynolds pointed out that Mikami was a Japanese citizen and was not subject to the injunction. The officers did not discuss Mikami's rights or any possible abridgement thereof. Reynolds was ordered to sail the Phoenix to Kwajalein with Navy cruiser Collett as escort.

On the way there, at 0430 in the darkness of July 3rd, Barbara and Ted were startled by a brilliant light which briefly lit the entire sky. Ted described it as "like a gigantic flash bulb, oval in shape and at about five to fifteen degrees above the horizon." A Japanese newscast later confirmed the explosion of an American nuclear device in the Hardtack series.

From Kwajalein, Earle, Barbara and Jessica were flown by MATS plane back to Honolulu for trial. Barbara later flew back to Kwajalein to help Ted and Nick sail the Phoenix back to Honolulu. That trip took 60 days and Judge J. Frank McLaughlin refused to extend the trial either for the arrival of Earle's boat, which held all the research and documentation for their decision to enter the zone or for the arrival of the rest of his crew as witnesses. Nor would he delay the trial one month until the lawyer Earle had retained could be present. The judge would not admit any testimony concerning Dr. Reynolds' motives for violating the injunction. Because he was an American citizen and had entered an area off-limits to Americans, a jury convicted Reynolds. [21][22]

The appeal took two years. During this time Dr. Reynolds was free to travel, lecture and write but he lost his title and his standing in the academic community. ABCC had already decided not to reactivate the research he had been involved in due to a change in research emphasis.

When the decision of the lower court was overturned, a small announcement atypical of the publication appeared in The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Feb. 1961.[23] It read, "The conviction of Dr. Earle Reynolds, who sailed into the US nuclear test area of the South Pacific as a protest during the 1958 tests, was reversed December 29 by the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in San Francisco. The court held that Reynolds was wrongly convicted of a felony because he had committed no more than a trespass, a misdemeanor"(NYT, 12/30)

With the court case closed, Dr. Reynolds flew to Japan on business, part of which involved a visit to ABCC, his former employer in Hiroshima. He took with him a copy of his book-length findings from his three years of research on the effects of radiation on Hiroshima children. He found the new director unfamiliar with the report and was stunned when statistician Dr. Beebe said casually, "Oh, yes, that's the report that was suppressed, isn't it?" Dr. Maki, Japanese co-director of ABCC since soon after its creation, confirmed the fact.

Dr. Reynolds was concerned that the scientific results of his study might have been delayed for political reasons, due to a possible conflict of interest--the Atomic Energy Commission funding ABCC had the two-pronged responsibility of researching the effects of radiation, reporting any potential dangers from it, and of promoting American nuclear testing. He contacted Dr. W.W. Greulich, who had done the original growth survey of Hiroshima children in 1947. Dr. Gruelich, who had become president of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, did not deny that the report had never been released. But he pointed out, "It would be difficult, if not impossible, to find out precisely why they refused to approve it" and urged him to "write it off" and seek "an academic or other post that will give you the opportunity for economic security which we all need for our families and ourselves. . ." The report was in fact classified, and although it had a publication date of 1959, was never released to the public.

Far from seeking economic security for his family, within 19 months Earle and his family were involved in another protest voyage. With the Pacific Ocean again open to American citizens, they sailed without incident back to Hiroshima [24] with Mikami, who became the first Japanese yachtsman to sail around the world. Suemitsu and Fushima had left the crew and returned to Japan from Panama in 1957. To the family's surprise, Japanese newspapers and individual hibakusha ("fire-bombed people") thanked them for sailing into the nuclear test zone "on their behalf" and for giving them a voice by telling the world, "No more Hiroshimas--for anyone, anywhere." They and an increasing number of people around the world began to mail the Reynolds family letters to deliver to world leaders on their behalf, appealing for peace through disarmament.

In October, 1961, the USSR resumed its own nuclear testing. The Reynolds family plus Tom Yoneda[25] sailed to Nakhodka in protest. (The nearest military port, Vladivostok, was inaccessible in winter.)They carried with them the hundreds of letters they had received. Soviet Coast Guard officers intercepted and boarded the Phoenix well offshore. Capt. Ivanov wrote a page in Jessica's diary echoing the desire for peace but he would not accept the letters. Before ordering the yacht to return to Japan, he had his crew bring aboard legs of mutton, fill every available container with sauerkraut and two 55-gallon drums with diesel fuel, for which they had no use. In her book about the trip, Earle's 17-year old daughter Jessica called this encounter "surreal. Of all the scenarios we had envisioned, this had not been one of them!" [26]

In 1962, Reynolds was invited to captain the Everyman III, on which members of A Quaker Action Group (AQAG) sailed from London to Leningrad via Belgium, Holland, Germany, Denmark, and Sweden. This 48-foot boat, too, was stopped at sea by armed soldiers. This time some of  the crew tried to sink the boat themselves but were tied up with ropes before they succeeded. That same year, Dr. Reynolds and Professor Tatsuo Morito of the University of Hiroshima co-founded the Hiroshima Institute of Peace Science (HIPS). Reynolds became a spokesman for the Japanese peace movement and attempted to work with its Gensuikyo branch until he found it too political for his taste, reporting to the press, "Peace cannot be achieved in an atmosphere of hatred."

Meanwhile Barbara, with two survivors of the Hiroshima bomb, was taking the letters refused by the captain of the Soviet ship around the world to appeal for peace before congressional hearings, in churches and in schools.

Divided on approaches to peace, among other things, Earle and Barbara divorced in 1964 and Earle married his secretary Akie Nagami, a citizen of Hiroshima and a graduate of Hiroshima Women's College where Earle was guest Professor of Anthropology. Together Earle and Akie continued his voyages in the Phoenix. In 1967 a multi-national crew delivered nearly a ton of medical aid to the Red Cross Society of North Vietnam for civilian victims of the Vietnam war. They spent eight days visiting hospitals in Hanoi and Haiphong and observing the effects of American bombing on outlying villages. [27] Two other voyages to Vietnam followed.

Earle and Akie made two attempts to sail the Phoenix to Shanghai as a gesture of "friendship and reconciliation" from an American and a Japanese citizen to the people of China, although the Japanese government refused to grant Akie a passport on the grounds China and Japan had no diplomatic relations. In 1968 the Phoenix was stopped on the high seas by a Japanese ship. Two years of litigation followed in Japanese courts. In 1969, with a crew of six Americans, the Phoenix was stopped 20 miles offshore by Chinese authorities and their entry was prohibited.

After these attempts to sail to China, the Japanese government passed a new immigration law cracking down on "undesirable aliens" (1970) and Dr. Reynolds was expelled from his adopted country of 13 years. He and his wife sailed to San Francisco and settled in Ben Lomond, California where they became the resident hosts of Quaker Center. Reynolds sold the Phoenix, giving the money from the sale to Quaker Center in exchange for a lifetime residence on the property. [28] He taught Peace Studies at the University of California at Santa Cruz and at Cabrillo College while Akie earned an MA in Peace Studies from Antioch College and worked as a career counselor at UCSC, specializing in peace-making careers and in placing students in overseas jobs. His seminar class founded the Peace Resource Center at Merrill College on the UCSC campus in 1975 but it became a casualty of financial cutbacks in the 1980s. For the next 24 years he continued an active schedule of teaching, writing, meetings, lecture tours, and protests against nuclear testing. Over a two-week period in 1981, 1,900 activists were arrested at Diablo Canyon Power Plant. It was the largest arrest in the history of the U.S. anti-nuclear movement and against nuclear weapons research. Dr. Reynolds was one of those arrested. [29]

After Akie's death from breast cancer in 1994, Earle Reynolds spent the last four years of his life in a home for Alzheimer's patients in Garden Grove, California. His daughter wrote a novella based on their relationship during those last years. [30]

In a 1986 interview, [31] Earle commented on his life work: "I've been a kind of a renegade scientist. As soon as I stepped over the boundaries, as soon as my findings became politically sensitive, I lost my credibility as a scientist. Now a scientist will stand on a podium and say what I was saying 30 years ago. I'm like a voice in the wilderness that finally begins to hear answering voices." [32]

[edit] References

  1. ^ Billboard, Feb. 21, 1925, p.104, mentions William Schoene and a Mrs. William Schoene in connection with the John T. Wortham Shows wintering in Paris, Texas; on April 18, 1925, p. 98 mentions William Schoene as the Manager of the Trained Animal Show and on Nov. 28, 1925 mentions that the show was quartered in San Angelo, Texas and William Schoene was breaking in new acts.
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^ Sept. 26, 1914, p. 15
  5. ^ Barbara Leonard Reynolds - Wikipedia, to be written
  6. ^ The Ohio Journal of Science, May, 1949, p. 89 footnote
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^ Wikipedia - Phoenix of Hiroshima
  10. ^
  11. ^ Sailing Alone Around the World, New York: The Century Company, 1900
  12. ^ Earle Reynolds, "We Crossed the Pacific the Hard Way," Saturday Evening Post, May 7, 14 and 21, 1955.
  13. ^ Earle and Barbara Reynolds, All in the Same Boat, New York: David McKay Co., Inc. 1962
  14. ^ Barbara Reynolds, Cabin Boy and Extra Ballast, a children's fictional account of a family sailing from Japan to Hawaii, Chas. Scribner's Sons, 1958
  15. ^ Jessica Reynolds, Jessica's Journal, Henry Holt & Co., 1958, her diary account of the trip from Hawaii to New Zealand, written when she was 11, published as a book when she was 14.
  16. ^ The Voyage of the Golden Rule: An Experiment with Truth: Albert Bigelow: Books. -
  17. ^ Albert Bigelow papers
  18. ^ Wikipedia - Albert Bigelow
  19. ^
  20. ^ Years later, in private correspondence, Capt. Bigelow wrote Earle that most people had never heard of the Phoenix and thought the Golden Rule had sailed into the area. Earle wrote back, ". . .Phoenix, in its trip, was the Golden Rule. I would be entirely happy if the entire world should think it was the Golden Rule which achieved its purpose, because it did!"
  21. ^ Norman Cousins, "Earle Reynolds and His Phoenix," Saturday Review, (date)
  22. ^ Norman Cousins - Wikipedia
  23. ^ Taken from the New York Times of December 30, 1960
  24. ^ Earle Reynolds, The Forbidden Voyage, p. 258
  25. ^ Elaine Black Yoneda Collection
  26. ^ Jessica Reynolds, To Russia with Love, due out 2010. Published in Japanese translation by Chas. E. Tuttle Co, Tokyo 1962
  27. ^ Boardman, Elizabeth Jelinek, The Phoenix Trip: Notes on a Quaker Mission to Haiphong, Burnsville, N.C.: Celo Press, 1901 Hannah Branch Road, Burnsville, NC 28714, 1985
  28. ^ Earle Reynolds, "The Center is Quaker: A Personal History of Ben Lomond Quaker Center," self-published,1985
  29. ^ Wikipedia - Diable Canyon Power Plant
  30. ^ Jessica Shaver Renshaw, New Every Morning, Pleasant Word Publishers, 1996
  31. ^ Santa Cruz News, January 9, p. 4
  32. ^ Earle and Akie Reynolds Collection
  33. ^
  34. ^ Wikipedia - Lawrence S. Wittner

Ashkenazy, Elinor, "Nuclear Tests on Trial," The Progressive, c. Dec, 1959,
Bigelow, Albert, The Voyage of the Golden Rule: An Experiment with Truth. Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Co., Inc., 1959.
Cousins, Norman, "Earle Reynolds and His Phoenix," Editorial, Saturday Review, Oct, 11, 1958.
Cousins, Norman, "The Debate is Over," Editorial, Saturday Review, c. Oct, 1959.
Grabarek, Kristin, On the Cutting Edge: The Peace Activism of Earle Reynolds. Earle Reynolds performed daring acts of civil disobedience at the dawn of ...
Human Biology, May 1964: Review of: Reynolds, Earle L., The Growth and Development of Hiroshima Children Exposed to the Atomic Bomb, 1953.
Fontaine, Andre, "A Family's Voyage into Danger," Redbook, c. Aug, 1959
M. Susan Lindee, Suffering made real: American science and the survivors at Hiroshima (1994) ... for Neel and Schull should be the ABCC. rather than the University of Michigan 1this suggestion was followed in the published version). Earle Reynolds
Lofton, John, (short account of Phoenix case), New Republic, Sept. 14, 1959.
Lundberg, Dan, (story about voyage of Phoenix from Kwajalein to Honolulu), The Spray, c. July 1959
PRICE, David H. (St. Martin's College), "Applied Anthropologist as Cold War Dissident: Earle Reynolds, An Informed Protester of Conscience.” ...
Taylor, Richard K.S., Against the bomb: the British peace movement, 1958-1965 (1988) Two thousand took part, including Vanessa Redgrave and Earle Reynolds, the captain of the American 'peace boats', 'Everyman IIP and 'Phoenix'. ...
Templin, Ralph, (story of Phoenix case), Journal of Human Relations, c. July 1959
Wittner, Lawrence S., "The Long Voyage: The Golden Rule and Resistance to Nuclear Testing in Asia and the Pacific," The Asia-Pacific Journal, 8-3-10, February 22, 2010.
Wittner, Lawrence S., PhD,[34] "Preserving the Golden Rule as a Piece of Anti-Nuclear History," February 14, 2010, article about Golden Rule and Phoenix.
Wittner, Lawrence S., Resisting the bomb: a history of the world nuclear disarmament ... (1997) War Resisters League, A WRL ...
As well as numerous articles in newspapers and magazines all over the world.

Reynolds, E. L. Growth and Development of Hiroshima Children Exposed to the Atomic Bomb. Three Year Study (1951-3). Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission Technical Report 20-59, 1959. Cited in Adult Stature in Relation to Childhood Exposure to the Atomic Bombs of Hiroshima and Nagasaki JOSEPH L. BELSKY, MDWILLIAM J. BLOT, PhD
Reynolds, Earle L., Penny Arcade (unpublished memoir) n.d., in Earle and Akie Reynolds Collection, UCSC: (See note by Reynolds' daughter above)
Reynolds, Earle and Barbara, All in the Same Boat. New York: David McKay Company, Inc., 1962 Family's trip around the world in the Phoenix, 1954-60.
Reynolds, Jessica, Jessica's Journal. New York: Henry Holt & Co., 1958. Eleven-year old's diary account of sailing from Hawaii to New Zealand in the Phoenix.
Reynolds, Barbara Leonard, Cabin Boy and Extra Ballast. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1958. Children's story of a family sailing from Japan to Hawaii.
Reynolds, Earle, "The Forbidden Voyage," The Nation, 15 Nov. 1958
Reynolds, Ted. "Voyage of Protest." Scribble, Winter, 1959
Reynolds, Earle, The Forbidden Voyage. New York: David McKay Company, Inc., 1961. Non-fiction. The Reynolds family's protest voyage against American nuclear testing in the Pacific and aftermath, 1958-1960.
(Reynolds') paper presented at the 58th Annual Meeting of the American Anthropology Association in Mexico City, (Dec. 28th, 1959) revealed the unpopular truths to be found about the physical dangers of exposure to nuclear radiation. Report was published in The Processes of Ongoing Human Evolution, Gabriel W. Lasker, ed., Detroit: Wayne University Press, 1960.
Reynolds, Tim, "Slocum," poem dedicated to Earle in book of poems by the same name. Santa Barbara: Unicorn Press, 1967.
Reynolds, Barbara, The Phoenix and the Dove. Japan: Nagasaki Appeal Committee, 1986. Barbara's personal spiritual journey.
Reynolds, Jessica, To Russia with Love (in Japanese translation). Tokyo: Chas. E. Tuttle Co., 1962. The Reynolds family's protest voyage against Soviet nuclear testing in the U.S.S.R.
Shaver, Jessica Reynolds. "There was Dad, climbing the ladder at Diablo," (Long Beach, CA) Press-Telegram, Sept. 18, 1981.
Shaver, Jessica Reynolds. "After the flood, a mission to 'rescue' Dad," (Long Beach, CA) Press-Telegram, Jan. 14, 1982.
Shaver, Jessica. "Breaking the Bitterness Barrier," Friends Journal, August 1991.
Shaver, Jessica. "When a daughter and daughter-in-law is the caregiver," (Long Beach, CA) Press-Telegram, July 24, 1994.
Renshaw, Jessica Shaver, New Every Morning. Enumclaw, WA: Pleasant Word 2006
Reynolds, Jessica, To Russia with Love (English original). Wilmington, OH: Peace Resource Center, Wilmington College, due out in 2010.

SONTAG, LESTER WARREN, REYNOLDS, EARLE L. OSSIFICATION SEQUENCES IN IDENTICAL TRIPLETS: A Longitudinal Study of Resemblances and Differences in the Ossification Patterns of a Set of Monozygotic Triplets (1944)
Sontag, Lester W., M.D. and Reynolds, Earle L., Ph.D. The fels composite sheet. I: A practical method for analyzing growth progress J. Pediat. 26, p. 327 (1945) and
Sontag, Lester W., M.D. and Reynolds, Earle L., Ph.D. The fels composite sheet. II: Variations in growth patterns in health and disease J. Pediat. 26:4, pp. 336-354 (1945)
Reynolds, Earle L. Sexual Maturation and the Growth of Fat, Muscle and Bone in Girls (1946)
Reynolds, Earle L. and Schoen, Grace. Growth Patterns of Identical Triplets from 8 through 18 Years (1947)
Reynolds, Earle L. and Clark, Leland C. Creatinine Excretion, Growth Progress and Body Structure in Normal Children (1947)
Reynolds, Earle L. Distribution of Tissue Components in the Female Leg From Birth to Maturity The Fels Research Institute for the Study of Human Development, Antioch College, Yellow Springs, Ohio The Anatomical Record (1947 or 1948)
Reynolds, Earle L., The appearance of adult patterns of body hair in man Department of Anthropology, Antioch College, and Physical Growth Department, Fels Research Institute for the Study of Human Development, Antioch College, Yellow Springs, Ohio The American Journal of Physical Anthropology (date?)
Reynolds, Earle L. Degree of kinship and pattern of ossification: A longitudinal X-ray Study of the Appearance Pattern of Ossification Centers in Children of Different Kinship Groups The Samuel S. Fels Research Institute, Antioch College, Yellow Springs, Ohio The American Journal of Physical Anthropology (date?)
Reynolds, Earle L., Toshiko Asakawa. The measurement of obesity in childhood. The Fels Research Institute for the Study of Human Development, Antioch College, Yellow Springs, Ohio The American Journal of Physical Anthropology (date?)
Reynolds, Earle L., Ph.D., and Wines, Janet V., A.B. Individual Differences in Physical Changes Associated with Adolescence in Girls. Am J. Dis. Child. 75 (3):329-350 (March 1948) and from Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine
Earle Reynolds cited in Harpenden Growth Study: J.M. Tanner. "Long-term longitudinal study of the growth of children in Harpenden. . . There was an excellent normative study before, made by Earle Reynolds and Janet Wines at the Fels Research Institute, who took their descriptions from the German literature of the 1930s and earlier, and excellent studies since, both in Zurich and in Stockholm, but ours was the only one in the period 1950-1980." (1948)
Reynolds, Earle L. Anthropology and Human Growth. The Ohio Journal of Science, Vol. XLIX, No. 3 (May, 1949) From a speech given at the 57th Annual Meeting of the Ohio Academy of Science, University of Toledo, May 7, 1948. and at and at
Reynolds, E.L., and Wines, J.V. Physical Changes Associated with Adolescence in Boys, Am. J. Dis. Child. 82 (5):529-547 (Nov. 1951). and
Reynolds and Wines, cited in Garn, Stanley Marion. Changes in Areolar Size during the Steroid Growth Phase. In Child Development, Vol. 23, No. 1 (March, 1952)
Earle Reynolds cited in Garn, Stanley M., Growth Research in Medicine: Presented at the Symposium on Medical Anthropology, Thirty-first Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, 1962, page 1: "With the Grenlich-Pyle Radiographic Atlas of Skeletal Development ('59), Earle Reynolds' standards for sexual maturation (Reynolds and Wines, '48, '51) . . .we surely cover the normative front."
Reynolds, Earle T. [sic] (June 12, 1952) The Growth and Development Program of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission: Analysis of Body Measurements Taken in 1951 on 4,800 Hiroshima children. Folder 7 NYO-4458 From Papers of Carl F. Tessmer Series II. M.D.
Reynolds, Earle L. (Oct. 30, 1952) "Growth and Development Program of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission: Analysis of Observations on Maturation, Body Build and Posture taken in 1951 on 4,800 Hiroshima Children" later published as report NYO-4459 (Folder 100) from Papers of Wataru W. Sutow, M.D.
Growth & Development: Earle Reynolds Reports etc: 1952-1967
Reynolds, E.L. The Distribution of Subcutaneous Fat in Childhood and Adolescence (1953)
Low, F.N., (Sept. 1953) Book Review of Earle L. Reynolds, The Distribution of Subcutaneous Fat in Childhood and Adolescence. The Quarterly Review of Biology, vol. 28, no. 3 DOI: 10.1086/399783
Alex F. Roche, Stanley M. Garn, Earle L. Reynolds (University of California, Santa Cruz, California 95064), Meinhard Robinow, Lester W. Sontag. The first seriatim study of human growth and middle aging. (1980)

[edit] External links (coming soon)
The Earle and Akie Reynolds Collection at the University of California at Santa Cruz has extensive writings by, photographs of and information about Earle Reynolds and his second wife. Includes manuscript and notes for Reynolds, Earle L., The Physical Growth in 1951 of Hiroshima Children Exposed to the Atomic Bomb, 1951.
In Pursuit of Peace: An Exhibit From the Earle and Akie Reynolds ... This is an exhibit covering the life of peace activists, Earle and Akie Reynolds. "It is not only the story of Earle and Akie Reynolds, but also of Barbara, ... -
Peace Resource Center (Wilmington College, Wilmington, OH) was founded by activist, author, and peace educator Barbara Reynolds in August, 1975 to house the largest collection (outside of Japan) on materials related to the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and to teach peace skills to new generations.
1954-1964 letters, newspaper clippings, brochures, postcards, from Earle & Barbara Reynolds & family including information on the Yacht Phoenix and the Hiroshima-Nagasaki World Peace Study Mission (Folder 47) (Folder 80) "The Growth and Development Program of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission: Analysis of Body Measurements and Observations Taken in 1952 on 4,200 Hiroshima Children" by Earle L. Reynolds, Ph.D., Nov. 15, 1953 (later published as NYO-4473 which can be found in the Tessmer Collection), TS.
Swarthmore College Peace Collection: Committee for Non-Violent Action Records, 1958-1968
Peace Monuments Related to Boats or Ships
Legal Brief: Earle L. Reynolds v. United States of America, Appeal from the United States District Court for the District of Hawaii, August 1958. From Ava Helen and Linus Pauling Papers, 1873-2002
Earle L. Reynolds, Appellant, v. United States of America ... Justia US Court of Appeals Cases and Opinions - 267 F.2d 235 - Earle L. Reynolds, Appellant, v. United States of America, Appellee. - Cached
The Australian Broadcasting Corporation: Radio National's, Radio Eye Earle Reynolds and 'The Phoenix'
As a young boy, Earle Reynolds had a dream to build and sail a boat around the world. He got the chance decades later when, in 1950, the National Academy of ...
Vietnam's Holy Week Ends on Bloody Note "A Tass dispatch from Hanoi said Dr. Earle L. Reynolds' ketch Phoenix carrying $10,000 worth of American Quaker medical supplies to North Vietnam, sailed around Red China's Hainan Island and entered the Gulf of Tonkin.,4188697
Dr. Earle Reynolds, an anthropologist from Yellow Springs, Ohio, is making a family affair of his boyhood dream of sailing around the world.
Articles pertaining to the Micronesia/Marshall Islands and to experiences of anthropologist, Dr. Earle Reynolds.** (Many of the contents of these folders were LOST in the flood and all of it is flood damaged)** From Papers of Wataru W. Sutow, M.D. at
U.S. team's visit to China bit frustrating for pacifist,4406662
http://38 10 54.86N 121 31 42.31W Last known location of the Phoenix.